Richard W

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  1. Related judgements, included in the UK's EEA Regulation, such as Surinder Singh and Zambrano, allow some close relatives of British citizens to stay or remain. The non-EEA family members can be expected to get permanent residence cards on completing their 5 years. Numbers of permanent residence cards issued are currently running at about 10,000 a year (2014: 10,005; 2015: 8,917; 2016: 11,897) - source This may includes some repeats - not everyone will naturalise in the first 10 years of permanent residence.
  2. You should have heeded Enoch Powell. He and Tony Benn knew full well that power was being transferred from the member countries to the union. Mind you, the member countries have retained ultimate sovereignty - in the form of Article 50. The tragedy has been that the European Parliament has not been taken seriously.
  3. It's harder than you think. Cameron's renegotiations made a right hash of the deal to reverse the Metock judgement. That's the judgement that lets other EU citizens bring their wives in cheaply from outside the EEA. The form adopted meant that foreign spouses brought in under national laws would only be able to move around freely, even with their husbands, if they became EU citizens (sensu lato). Metock is also the judgement that makes Surinder Singh a useful tool for importing non-EU spouses to one''s own country. I think in general you'd need a lot of harmonisation of national immigration laws to make other changes work fairly.
  4. It is quite likely that most of the applications simply don't support wild cards. Searching lists of words should proceed better. Note that the dotted circles aren't part of the text; they only make an appearance when the text is displayed.
  5. Welcome to Indic text layout! Why are you developing a Thai text editor? Should it be capable of editing Northern Khmer, Patani Malay, Khom script, Lanna script or phonetic Thai in Haas notation? Typographically good English? Arabic? English with embedded Hebrew? Hindi? Does the text editor restrict the choice of fonts? The basic solution is that you do *not* display text character by character. You use a modern layout engine to display paragraphs, lines or long strings. You need to decide where you are going to allow the cursor to be. Many applications do not allow the cursor to be within a 'grapheme cluster', a nebulous concept discussed in Unicode Standard Annex 29: Text Segmentation. If you do, there are two options: Position the cursor within a cluster by assuming the character boundaries are evenly spaced. Render up to the cursor, the cursor, and then the rest of the text. Treat dotted circles as a useful tool to show where the cursor is within the orthographic syllable. (For Thai, it is useful in editing and rendering to treat the preposed vowels, เ แ โ ใ ไ, as constituting syllables in themselves. The Thai orthographic syllable then consists of a consonant plus the marks above and below.) Adjacent characters in a font often interact. In English, the sequence 'fi' is often rendered with the dot omitted and the letters joined. In the Thai script, ฐ and ญ lose their bottom parts before a mark below, a phenomenon mostly encountered in Pali.
  6. Unstressed final syllables are rare, if not non-existent, in Thai. ประ is very common as an unstressed first syllable.
  7. It looks as though she did listen, and got it right. I believe she's giving the normal pronunciation, in which /a/ in an unstressed, phonetically open syllable (after automatic glottal stop deletion) normally has the mid tone.
  8. So a British citizen visiting the UK for NHS treatment and failing to pay will not be prevented from subsequently re-entering, as you claimed would happen to those who abscond without paying. (I had thought that you knew that by means of a temporary exclusion order, a British citizen can be denied entry, even outside a port, without an appointment. I gather that this hasn't happened yet.) Like 1 + 1 = 3? The grounds for cancellation are rather wider - see Pedantically, your error is demonstrated by; AI was too young to have been naturalised. In response to the next point, did I say they were subject to the IHS surcharge? British citizens are liable for NHS charges when they are visitors to the UK.
  9. Having a foreign passport is allegedly not relevant in general. However, dual nationals hold British nationality at the Home Secretary's pleasure (tightly constrained by the courts), and in some places are prohibited from access to information supplied by the US. It can also difficult for those with a foreign passport to change their name, e.g. to adopt a husband's surname. The change may have to ripple through the nationalities in a specific order.
  10. And, so far as I am aware, such citizens will not be refused entry because they owe the NHS money. Or are you suggesting that they will be impeded by their passports being cancelled?
  11. Sorry, that doesn't work for British citizens, who I believe are the most expensive set of health tourists.
  12. It's polyisocyanurate, a different source of cyanide.
  13. Actually, there are some Indic languages that are now tonal, such as Punjabi. In Thai, the syllables of Sanskrit and Pali words may have a 2-way contrast in tone, corresponding to the class of the initial consonant. It seems that the tonal system of Chinese is only about two thousand years old. Current thinking is that the system of 3-tone contrasts (as seen in Thai writing) arose in parallel in Chinese, Tai, Hmong-Mien and Vietnamese, though it was probably spread by Chinese influence. There are a few words that are different as initial elements and free-standing words - ไม้ and น้ำ are the most obvious. Many words of Sanskrit origin have different forms depending on whether they are the last element in a compound word. One could jocularly claim that Thai has both a construct case and a genitive case!
  14. That doesn't sound right. There are two significant allotones, described numerically as 453 for live syllables and 55 for short dead syllables. I'm not sure what it should be for long dead syllables. For a description, see, though the curves given are at least a generation old.
  15. So how few people voted for exit expecting it to make them worse off? Man does not live by bread alone.